NaviKey sample data/DeltaChars

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  • SHOW ~ Grass Genera - character list.
*CHARACTER LIST #1. including <synonyms: ‘genera’ included in the current description>/ #2. <longevity of plants>/ 1. annual <or biennial, without remains of old sheaths or culms>/ 2. perennial <with remains of old sheaths and/or culms>/ #3. <mature> culms <maximum height: data unreliable for large genera>/ cm high/ #4. culms <whether woody or herbaceous>/ 1. woody and persistent/ 2. herbaceous <not woody, not persistent>/ #5. culms <whether branched above>/ 1. branched <vegetatively> above/ 2. unbranched <vegetatively> above/ #6. culm nodes <whether hairy or glabrous>/ 1. hairy/ 2. glabrous/ #7. leaf blades <shape: data incomplete>/ 1. linear/ 2. linear-lanceolate/ 3. lanceolate/ 4. ovate-lanceolate/ 5. ovate/ 6. elliptic <oblong>/ 7. obovate/ #8. leaf blades <mid-width: data very incomplete>/ mm wide/ #9. leaf blades <whether pseudopetiolate>/ 1. pseudopetiolate/ 2. not pseudopetiolate <<implicit>>/ #10. <adaxial> ligule <presence>/ 1. <consistently> present <<implicit>>/ 2. absent <at least from upper leaves>/ #11. <adaxial> ligule <form; avoid seedlings>/ 1. an unfringed membrane <may be variously hairy or ciliolate>/ 2. a fringed membrane/ 3. a fringe of hairs/ 4. a rim of minute papillae/ #12. plants <whether monoecious, with bisexual spikelets, or dioecious>/ 1. <bisexual, but> monoecious with all the fertile spikelets unisexual/ 2. bisexual, with <at least some> bisexual spikelets/ 3. dioecious <with separate male and female-fertile individuals>/ #13. inflorescence <chasmogamous: overall form>/ 1. a single spike/ 2. of spicate <spike-like> main branches <of spikes, narrow racemes or narrow panicles>/ 3. a false spike, with spikelets <or spikelet clusters> on contracted axes/ 4. a single raceme <at least some of the spikelets clearly pedicellate>/ 5. paniculate <and not readily referable to any of the other states>/ #14. inflorescence <whether open or contracted: mainly applied to panicles>/ 1. open/ 2. contracted <very compact, or narrow and spike-like>/ #15. inflorescence <whether comprising a complex of ‘partial inflorescences’ and intervening foliar organs (= leaves, spathes, spatheoles)>/ 1. a complex of ‘partial inflorescences’ and intervening foliar organs <i.e., a ‘pseudo-inflorescence’>/ 2. not comprising ‘partial inflorescences’ and foliar organs/ #16. spikelet-bearing axes <whether disarticulating; note that spikelet-bearing axes may be greatly reduced>/ 1. disarticulating <often manifested in clearly articulated rachides. Excluding inflorescences falling whole (tumbleweeds)>/ 2. persistent <not disarticulating: implicit>/ #17. spikelet-bearing axes <manner of disarticulation>/ 1. falling entire/ 2. disarticulating at the joints/ #18. spikelets <grouping: recorded mainly in spikes and racemes>/ 1. <mainly> solitary/ 2. <consistently> paired/ 3. <consistently> in triplets/ #19. spikelets <whether secund>/ 1. secund/ 2. not secund/ #20. spikelets <whether in regular ‘long-and-short’ combinations, as exemplified in typical andropogonoids>/ 1. consistently in ‘long-and-short’ combinations <i.e., pedicellate/sessile or long-pedicel/short-pedicel pairs or triplets: currently includes andropogonoid forms with the pedicellate ‘spikelets’ reduced to their pedicels>/ 2. not <consistently> in distinct ‘long-and-short’ combinations <<implicit>>/ #21. spikelets <detail of ‘long-and-short’ combinations (intended mainly for andropogonoids)>/ 1. in pedicellate/sessile combinations/ 2. unequally pedicellate in each combination/ #22. pedicels of the ‘pedicellate’ spikelets <whether fused with the rachis: intended for andropogonoids>/ 1. discernible, but <extensively> fused with the rachis/ 2. free of the rachis/ #23. the ‘shorter’ <andropogonoid> spikelets <sessile or shorter-pedicelled, sexuality>/ 1. hermaphrodite/ 2. female-only/ 3. male-only/ 4. sterile/ #24. the ‘longer’ <andropogonoid> spikelets <pedicelled or longer-pedicelled, sexuality>/ 1. hermaphrodite/ 2. female-only/ 3. male-only/ 4. sterile <comment if reduced to pedicels>/ #25. <comments on female-sterile spikelets>/ #26. <female-fertile> spikelets <approximate length, excluding any awns>/ mm long/ #27. <female-fertile> spikelets <plane of compression>/ 1. compressed laterally <lying on the side when placed on a flat surface>/ 2. not noticeably compressed <terete>/ 3. compressed <dorsally, ventrally or> dorsiventrally <lying on front or back when placed on a flat surface>/ #28. <female-fertile> spikelets <location of disarticulation positions>/ 1. <readily> disarticulating above the glumes <when mature>/ 2. disarticulating between the glumes/ 3. falling with the glumes <when mature> <pending data changes, including forms where the spikelets are shed by inflorescence disarticulation>/ 4. not disarticulating <common in cultivated cereals>/ #29. <female-fertile> spikelets <whether rachilla disarticulates between the florets of spikelets with two or more fertile florets>/ 1. not disarticulating between the florets/ 2. disarticulating between the florets/ #30. rachilla <of female-fertile spikelets, whether terminated by a female-fertile floret, or ‘prolonged’>/ 1. prolonged beyond the uppermost female-fertile floret <i.e. not terminated by a female-fertile floret: note that ‘racemose’ spikelets with three or more female-fertile florets have all been awarded this state>/ 2. terminated by a female-fertile floret <not ‘prolonged’>/ #31. hairy callus <presence>/ 1. present/ 2. absent/ #32. glumes <of female-fertile spikelets, present or absent>/ 1. present <<implicit>>/ 2. absent/ #33. glumes <of female-fertile spikelets, number: ‘glumes’ are barren, with neither axillary spikelets nor florets>/ 1. one per spikelet/ 2. two/ 3. several/ #34. glumes <of female-fertile spikelets, whether markedly unequal in the intact spikelet; regardless of any differences in form>/ 1. very unequal <in length in the intact spikelet>/ 2. more or less equal <in length in the intact spikelet: generally includes ‘subequal’>/ #35. glumes <of female-fertile spikelets, lengths relative to proximal (adjacent) lemmas; refers to the longer glume when glumes unequal>/ 1. <decidedly> shorter than the adjacent lemmas <in intact spikelets>/ 2. long relative to the adjacent lemmas <more or less equalling or exceeding them>/ #36. glumes <of female-fertile spikelets, whether awned>/ 1. awned/ 2. awnless/ #37. glumes <of female-fertile spikelets, whether carinate (i.e., one-keeled to middle or below)>/ 1. carinate <one-keeled>/ 2. non-carinate <includes forms with more than one keel, as well as those with non-keeled glumes>/ #38. upper glume <(or the single glume) of female-fertile spikelets, mid-zone nerve number>/ nerved/ #39. <female-fertile> spikelets <whether containing sterile or male-only florets in addition to female-fertile florets>/ 1. <normally> with female-fertile florets only/ 2. <or at least some of them, normally> with incomplete <sterile or male-only> florets <note that the situation at the apex of spikelets with more than three florets is often unknown or unclear>/ #40. the incomplete <male or sterile> florets <position in spikelet>/ 1. proximal to the female-fertile florets/ 2. distal to the female-fertile florets/ 3. both distal and proximal to the female-fertile florets/ #41. the proximal incomplete florets <of the female-fertile spikelets, when present, number (intended mainly for panicoids)>/ #42. the proximal incomplete florets <of the female-fertile spikelets: sexuality>/ 1. male/ 2. sterile/ #43. the proximal <imperfect> lemmas <of the female-fertile spikelets: whether awned>/ 1. awned/ 2. awnless/ #44. <number of> female-fertile florets <per female-fertile spikelet>/ #45. <female-fertile> lemmas <shape of apex>/ 1. entire/ 2. incised/ #46. <female-fertile> lemmas <entire, whether pointed or blunt>/ 1. pointed/ 2. blunt/ #47. <female-fertile> lemmas <whether mucronate or awned>/ 1. awnless <neither mucronate nor awned>/ 2. mucronate <with a short, hard point or vestigial or incipient awn>/ 3. awned/ #48. awns <of female-fertile lemmas, if present, number>/ #49. awns <of female-fertile lemmas, position of (main, median)>/ 1. from a sinus/ 2. dorsal/ 3. apical/ #50. awns <of female-fertile lemmas, whether straight or geniculate when dry>/ 1. non-geniculate <straight or curved>/ 2. geniculate <usually twisted at the base>/ #51. awns <main, median of the female-fertile lemmas, relative length>/ 1. much shorter than the body of the lemma/ 2. about as long as the body of the lemma/ 3. much longer than the body of the lemma/ #52. <female-fertile> lemmas <whether carinate (i.e., one-keeled at least to the middle on the back>/ 1. carinate <with a single median keel>/ 2. non-carinate <rounded, flat, with two or more keels>/ #53. <female-fertile> lemmas <presence of germination flap>/ 1. with a clear germination flap <when mature>/ 2. without a germination flap/ #54. <female-fertile> lemmas <number of nerves traversing mid-region>/ nerved/ #55. palea <female-fertile, presence in female-fertile florets>/ 1. present/ 2. absent/ #56. palea <female-fertile, relative size>/ 1. relatively long <three-quarters or more of female-fertile lemma length>/ 2. conspicuous but relatively short <less than three-quarters of female-fertile lemma length>/ 3. very reduced <or vestigial>/ #57. lodicules <presence in female-fertile florets>/ 1. present/ 2. absent/ #58. lodicules <of female-fertile florets, texture>/ 1. <distally> fleshy <‘cuneate’; panicoid type>/ 2. <distally> membranous <i.e. pooid type>/ #59. lodicules <of female-fertile florets, whether hairy>/ 1. ciliate <or hairy>/ 2. glabrous/ #60. stamens <number per female-fertile floret (not applicable to male spikelets or male florets)>/ #61. ovary <of female-fertile florets, whether apex glabrous or hairy>/ 1. glabrous/ 2. hairy/ #62. stigmas <number>/ #63. stigmas <colour, in chasmogamous spikelets>/ 1. white/ 2. red <anthocyanin> pigmented/ 3. <golden> brown/ #64. fruit <length when mature>/ 1. small <less than 4 mm>/ 2. medium sized <4–10 mm>/ 3. large <more than 10 mm long>/ #65. fruit <or grain surface pattern>/ 1. sculptured/ 2. <relatively> smooth <the near-universal condition: implicit>/ #66. hilum <form>/ 1. short <punctiform or shortly elliptical, less than half length of fruit>/ 2. long-linear <more than half as long as fruit>/ #67. pericarp <whether fused or loose (or free)>/ 1. free/ 2. loosely adherent <fairly easily removable when soaked>/ 3. fused <implicit, except in Arundinoideae and Chloridoideae>/ #68. <maximum cells-distant count; reliably indicative of photosynthetic pathway>/ 1. <showing a maximum cells-distant count of one, reliably predicting> C\sub{}4\nosupersub{}/ 2. <showing a maximum cells-distant count of two or more, reliably predicting> C\sub{}3\nosupersub{}/ #69. <C\sub{}4\nosupersub{}> biochemical type <as determined by enzyme assay>/ 1. PCK/ 2. NAD–ME/ 3. NADP–ME/ #70. <leaf blade XyMS: reliably indicative of C\sub{}4\nosupersub{} type>/ 1. XyMS+ <C\sub{}3\nosupersub{}, or C\sub{}4\nosupersub{} ‘aspartate formers’ type PCK or NAD–ME (exceptions: Eriachneae)>/ 2. XyMS– <C\sub{}4\nosupersub{} ‘malate formers’, type NADP–ME>/ #71. <leaf blade> mesophyll <presence of arm cells (= ‘ratchet’ cells)>/ 1. with arm cells/ 2. without arm cells <implicit when ts adequately described>/ #72. <leaf blade> mesophyll <presence of fusoid cells>/ 1. with fusoids/ 2. without fusoids <implicit when ts adequately described>/ #73. midrib <of the leaf blade, prominence>/ 1. conspicuous <prominent in the outline, with distinctive sclerenchyma, etc.>/ 2. not readily distinguishable <other than by position>/ #74. midrib <of the mid leaf blade, vascularization>/ 1. with one bundle only/ 2. having a conventional arc of bundles <i.e. at least three bundles>/ 3. having complex vascularization <i.e. with more than one bundle, not arranged in a conventional arc>/ #75. midrib <and/or middle part of leaf blade, whether extensively of colourless cells adaxially>/ 1. with <conspicuous> colourless tissue adaxially/ 2. without <conspicuous> colourless tissue adaxially <implicit when ts adequately described>/ #76. <presence in the leaf blade of small vascular bundles unaccompanied by sclerenchyma>/ 1. many of the smallest vascular bundles unaccompanied by sclerenchyma/ 2. all <or nearly all> the vascular bundles accompanied by sclerenchyma/ #77. <\i{}Zea mays\i0{}>/ 1. fruiting inflorescence a massive, spatheate cob, the fruits in many rows/ 2. fruiting inflorescence not as in maize <<implicit>>/ #78. <subfamily>/ 1. Pooideae/ 2. Bambusoideae/ 3. Arundinoideae/ 4. Chloridoideae/ 5. Panicoideae/ #79. <supertribes of Watson \i{}et al\i0{}. 1985, with name endings changed>/ 1. Triticodae/ 2. Poodae/ 3. Oryzodae/ 4. Bambusodae/ 5. Panicodae/ 6. Andropogonodae/ #80. <tribe of Pooideae>/ 1. Triticeae/ 2. Brachypodieae/ 3. Bromeae/ 4. Aveneae <including Agrostideae, Phalarideae>/ 5. Meliceae/ 6. Seslerieae/ 7. Poeae <including Hainardieae, Monermeae>/ #81. <tribe of Bambusoideae>/ 1. Oryzeae/ 2. Olyreae/ 3. Centotheceae/ 4. Anomochloeae/ 5. Brachyelytreae/ 6. Diarrheneae/ 7. Ehrharteae/ 8. Phaenospermateae/ 9. Phyllorhachideae/ 10. Phareae/ 11. Streptochaeteae/ 12. Streptogyneae/ 13. Guaduelleae/ 14. Puelieae/ 15. Bambuseae/ #82. <tribe of Arundinoideae>/ 1. Steyermarkochloeae/ 2. Stipeae/ 3. Nardeae/ 4. Lygeae/ 5. Arundineae/ 6. Danthonieae <and satellites>/ 7. Cyperochloeae/ 8. Micraireae/ 9. Spartochloeae/ 10. Aristideae/ 11. Eriachneae/ 12. Amphipogoneae/ #83. <tribe/assemblage of Chloridoideae>/ 1. Pappophoreae/ 2. Orcuttieae/ 3. Triodieae/ 4. main chloridoid assemblage <including Chlorideae, Cynodonteae, Eragrosteae, Sporoboleae, Aeluropodeae, Jouveae, Unioleae, Leptureae, Lappagineae, Spartineae, Trageae, Perotideae, Pommereulleae>/ #84. <tribe of Panicoideae>/ 1. Isachneae/ 2. Paniceae/ 3. Neurachneae/ 4. Arundinelleae/ 5. Andropogoneae/ 6. Maydeae/ #85. <number of species>/ species/ #86. <floristic Kingdoms: after Takhtajan 1969>/ 1. Holarctic/ 2. Paleotropical/ 3. Neotropical/ 4. Cape/ 5. Australian/ 6. Antarctic/ #87. <leaf anatomical references>/ #88. <illustrations:>/ #89. <abbreviated taxon name:>/ *COMMENT