CARTHAMUS Linnaeus Sp. Pl.. 2: 830. 1753; Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 361. 1754.
Distaff thistle [Arabic qartam , safflower]
David J. Keil
Annuals or perennials, 30–180 cm, herbage glabrous to ± glandular and/or ± tomentose. Stems usually erect, branched distally or throughout, (leafy). Leaves basal and cauline or all cauline; basal and proximal cauline winged-petiolate, distal cauline sessile, sometimes clasping; blade margins dentate to pinnately lobed, ± spiny, faces glabrous or ± glandlar and/or ± tomentose. Heads discoid, borne singly or in few-headed cymiform arrays. Involucres ovoid, constricted distally. Phyllaries many in 4–5 series, linear to ovate (at least outer ± leaflike), bases appressed, apical appendages more herbaceous, prominently veiny, spiny-dentate or -lobed, spine-tipped. Receptacles convex to conic, epaleate, bearing subulate scales. Florets 15–60+; corollas yellow to red or ± purple, tubes very slender, throats gradually or abruptly expanded, ± cylindric or short-campanulate, lobes linear; anther bases short-tailed, apical appendages oblong; style branches: fused portions with slightly swollen basal nodes minutely hairy, distally minutely papillate, distinct portions very short. Cypselae oblong to obpyramidal, ± 4-angled, apices with smooth or dentate rims, faces usually ± roughened (outer) or smooth (inner), glabrous, attachment scars lateral; pappi 0 or (usually only inner cypselae) ± persistent, of many, usually unequal, narrow scales overlapping in several series. x = 10, 12.
Species 14 (4 in the flora):United States; Mediterranean region.
Ashri, A. and P. F. Knowles. 1959. Further notes on Carthamus in California. Leafl. W. Bot. 9: 5–8.Ashri, A. and P. F. Knowles. 1960. Cytogenetics of safflower (Carthamus L.) species and their hybrids. Agron. J. 52: 11–17.Hanelt, P. 1963. Monographisch Übersicht der Gattung Carthamus L. (Compositae). Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 67: 41–180.Hanelt, P. 1976. Carthamus. In: T. G. Tutin et al., eds. 1964–1980. Flora Europaea. 5 vols. Cambridge. Vol. 4, pp. 302–303.Khidir, M. O. and P. F. Knowles. 1970. Cytogenetic studies of Carthamus species (Compositae) with 32 pairs of chromosomes. I. Intrasectional hybridization. Amer. J. Bot. 57: 123–129.Khidir, M. O. and P. F. Knowles. 1970b. Cytogenetic studies of Carthamus species (Compositae) with 32 pairs of chromosomes. II. Intersectional hybridization. Canad. J. Genet. Cytol. 12: 90–99.
|1.||Corollas pink or pale purple; cauline leaves ± deeply lobed||1. Carthamus leucocaulos|
|1.||Corollas yellow to red; cauline leaves toothed to deeply lobed.||(2.)|
|2.||Cauline leaves toothed, otherwise undivided, weakly spiny; corollas yellow to red; cypselae white||4. Carthamus tinctorius|
|2.||Cauline leaves ± divided, very spiny; corollas yellow; cypselae brown.||(3.)|
|3.||Anthers yellow, pollen yellow; corollas bright yellow; outer phyllaries usually not more than 1.5 times as long as inner; herbage ± cobwebby; stems stramineous||2. Carthamus lanatus|
|3.||Anthers white with purple lines, pollen white; corollas pale yellow; outer phyl-laries usually 2 times as long as inner; herbage ± sparsely hairy; stems white or stramineous||3. Carthamus creticus|