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ARCTOTIS Linnaeus Sp. Pl.. 2: 922. 1753.

African-daisy [Greek arktos , brown bear, and ous , otos , ear, perhaps alluding to shape of pappus scales]

Alison McKenzie Mahoney,

Annuals or perennials [subshrubs], [5–]10–100 cm (hirsute to arachnose or woolly, sometimes glandular as well). Stems erect [decumbent]. Leaves basal and/or cauline; petiolate or sessile; blades mostly spatulate to oblanceolate, margins entire, sinuate-dentate, or pinnately lobed, abaxial faces tomentose to sparsely arachnose. Involucres hemispheric to campanulate, 10–25 mm diam. Phyllaries in 3–6+ series, distinct, outer linear to oblong, inner ovate to elliptic, margins ± scarious. Receptacles flat, alveolate (pit margins often ciliate), epaleate. Ray florets pistillate, fertile (staminodes often present); corollas white, cream, yellow, orange, pink, purple, violet, or blue (sometimes dark abaxially), laminae 4-veined, 3-toothed. Disc florets usually bisexual and fertile, sometimes functionally staminate; corollas yellow or brown to violet or purple. Cypselae ovoid to obovoid, abaxial faces ± rounded, 3–5-ribbed or -winged (wings sometimes toothed and inflexed into 2 longitudinal grooves), adaxial faces flattened, apices sometimes forming callous borders, faces (smooth or transversely rugose) glabrous or pilose to sericeous; pappi usually present, persistent, usually of 5–8 ovate to oblong scales in 2 series, sometimes coroniform, sometimes none. x = 9.

Species ca. 60 (2 in the flora):s Africa; cultivated and/or introduced elsewhere.;

1. Cypselae ± ovoid, 1.3–1.5 mm, glabrous; pappi 0 or coroniform 1. Arctotis fastuosa
1. Cypselae ± obovoid, 2–3 mm, sericeous (hairs from bases) and tomentulose (on faces); pappi of 5–8 hyaline scales 0.5–4 mm 2. Arctotis stoechadifolia