Cirsium palustre

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Cirsium palustre is a noxious weed, native to Europe, that invasively spreads through wetland communities, forming impenetrable spiny stands as it displaces native species. The range of this pernicious weed in North America is rapidly expanding. It has the potential to spread into boreal forest areas across the continent; in Europe it grows nearly to the Arctic Circle. The rapid spread of C. palustre in Michigan (E. G. Voss 1972–1996, vol. 3) is indicative of its invasiveness. Spontaneous hybrids between C. palustre and C. arvense have been reported from England and other European countries (W. A. Sledge 1975) and can be expected wherever these species grow together in North America.

Facts about "Cirsium palustre"
apex colorationpurplish +
apex external texturescarious +
apex fragilityweak +
apex orientationerect + and spreading +
apex prominence or shapeflat +
apex shapeacute +, mucronate +, spines + and linear-attenuate +
base architecturesessile +
base arrangementspaced +
base countmany +
base positioncauline + and distal cauline +
base shapelong-decurrent +, tapered + and pinnatifid +
base sizereduced +
blade shapeelliptic + and oblanceolate +
branch height or lengthshort +
branch orientationascending +
chromosome count34 +
cluster densitydense +
collar reflectanceshiny +
corolla colorationlavender +, purple + and white +
cypsela colorationtan + and stramineous +
face countpresent +
face external texturevillous + and glabrate +
face orientationappressed +
face positionbasal +, outer + and middle +
face shapeentire +
flowering timesummerjul + and aug +
habitatmarshes + and wet forests +
habitat moisturewet +
involucre external texturecobwebby tomentose +
involucre shapeovoid + and campanulate +
lobe arrangementseparated +
lobe shapepinnatifid +, few-toothed + and spine-tipped +
lobe widthnarrow +
margin architecture or shapearachnoid-ciliate +
margin colorationtinge +
margin positioninner +
margin shapespiny-dentate +, lobed +, lanceolate +, ovate + and linear-lanceolate +
petiole architecturespiny-winged +
phyllary arrangementimbricate +
phyllary colorationgreenish +
ridge widthnarrow +
root internal texturefibrous +
sinus widthbroad +
spine external textureabaxial + and tomentose +
stem countsingle +
stem external texturevillous + and tomentose +
stem orientationerect +
trichome architecturejointed +, unbranched + and septate +
trichome widthfine +
whole organism life stylebiennial + and perennial +
wing architecture or shapespiny +