Centaurea

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The circumscription for Arctotideae adopted here follows that of K. Bremer (1994) and is narrower than that of N. T. Norlindh (1977[1978]). Arctotideae have been thought to be closely allied to members of Cynareae, chiefly on similarities in styles of some taxa and prickly, thistly habits in some taxa; such a relationship has been rejected by recent workers. J. L. Panero and V. A. Funk (2002) associated Arctotideae with their subfamily Cichorioideae, along with tribes Vernonieae, Liabeae, Cichorieae, and Gundelieae.

Facts about "Centaurea"
apex shaperounded,acute +
appendage shapeovate,lanceolate +
array architecturecorymbiform,racemiform,umbelliform +
base shapeobtuse,acute,sagittate,tailed +
body architecturewinged +
body architecture or shaperibbed +
body external texturesericeous,tomentulose,woolly,glabrous +
branch arrangement or shapelinear +
branch countlacking +
branch habitstigmatic +
calyculus count0 +
corolla architectureactinomorphic +
corolla colorationwhite,yellow,orange,blue,red,purple,yellow,brown,purple +
corolla shape3-or-4-toothed +
cypsela architecturemonomorphic +
cypsela shapeellipsoid,obovoid,ovoid,terete,angled,flattened,beaked +
floret architecturepistillate,styliferous,neuter,staminate +
floret reproductionfertile,sterile,bisexual,fertile,bisexual,fertile +
flowering timespring,mar,apr,summer,aug,may,jun,jul +
head architecture or arrangementradiate +
head architecture or shapediscoid +
head arrangementsingly,aggregated +
head reproductionheterogamous,homogamous +
leaf architecturepetiolate,sessile +
leaf arrangementalternate +
leaf positionbasal,cauline +
lobe count5 +
lobe shapetriangular,lanceolate,deltate +
margin architectureprickly +
margin architecture or shapeprickly-ciliate +
margin external texturescarious +
margin positioninner +
margin shapelobed,dissected,dentate,entire +
margin shape or vernationrevolute +
pappus count0 +
pappus durationpersistent +
pappus shapecoroniform +
phyllary durationpersistent +
phyllary external texture or internal textureherbaceous +
phyllary fusiondistinct,connate +
phyllary internal texturefleshy +
phyllary sizeunequal +
receptacle architectureepaleate,paleate +
receptacle relieffoveolate +
receptacle shapeflat,conic +
sap colorationmilky +
style external textureglabrous,hispidulous +
style shapedilated,cylindric +
tip shapeparted +
tooth arrangementopposite +
tooth count2 +
whole organism life styleannual,perennial +