Asteraceae tribe Cynareae

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The circumscription for Cynareae adopted here is the traditional one and includes the

   three elements (Cynareae in the narrow sense, Carlineae, and Echinopeae) recognized as tribally
   distinct by M. Dittrich (1977[1978]). Work by K. Bremer (1987) supported the Dittrich scheme. A
   traditional circumscription of Cynareae was maintained by J. L. Panero and V. A. Funk
   (2002).
apex architecture or shapespinose +
apex shaperounded + and acute +
apex sizeexpanded +
appendage fusiondistinct +
appendage shapefimbriate-fringed +, pectinate +, spiny + and oblong +
array architecturecorymbiform +, paniculiform + and racemiform +
attachment positionbasal + and lateral +
base shapedecurrent + and tailed +
body architecture10-or-20-nerved +
body architecture or external texture or reliefsmooth +
body external textureglabrous +, puberulent + and villous +
body reliefrugose +
bract architectureleaflike +
branch external texturehairy +
bristle architecturebarbellate + and plumose +
bristle external texturecoarse +
calyculus count0 +
corolla architecturezygomorphic +, raylike +, 2-lipped + and actinomorphic +
corolla colorationyellow +, ochroleucous +, cyanic + and white +
corolla countpresent +
corolla shape5-lobed +
cypsela architecturemonomorphic +
cypsela shapeellipsoid +, obovoid +, ovoid +, rounded-prismatic +, terete +, 4-5-angled +, compressed + and beaked +
filament external texturepilose +
filament fusionconnate +
filament reliefpapillate +
floret architecturepistillate + and staminate +
floret count0 + and in disciform heads . +
floret positionperipheral +
floret reproductionbisexual + and fertile +
head architecturedisciform +, radiant +, pistillate +, neuter + and thick-walled +
head architecture or arrangementradiant +
head architecture or shapediscoid +, disciform + and nutlike +
head arrangementsingly + and in corymbiform , paniculiform , or racemiform arrays +
head external texturehard +
head reproductionhomogamous +, bisexual + and with staminodes +
head sizeenlarged +
leaf architecturepetiolate + and sessile +
leaf architecture or shapespiny +
leaf arrangementalternate +
leaf positionbasal + and cauline +
leaf shapelobed +, dissected +, dentate + and entire +
lobe count5 +
lobe shapetriangular +, linear + and deltate +
lobe sizeunequal +
margin architecture or shapespiny +
margin external texturescarious +
margin shapeentire +, denticulate + and pectinate +
pappus behaviourfalling +
pappus count0 +
pappus durationpersistent +
phyllary behaviourfalling +
phyllary durationpersistent +
phyllary external texture or internal textureherbaceous +
phyllary fusiondistinct +
phyllary internal texturefleshy +
phyllary sizeunequal +
receptacle architectureepaleate +
receptacle external texturebristly-setose + and hairy +
receptacle reliefpitted +
receptacle shapeflat + and convex +
shrub architecture or shapeprickly-spiny +
shrub external texturecoarse +
shrub fragilityrobust +
shrub structureperennials +
style fusionconnate +
style habitstigmatic +
style reliefsmooth + and papillate +
style reproductionbisexual +
style shapeswollen + and dilated +
style sizeenlarged +
subshrub architecture or shapeprickly-spiny +
subshrub external texturecoarse +
subshrub fragilityrobust +
subshrub structureperennials +