Asteraceae tribe Arctotideae

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The circumscription for Arctotideae adopted here follows that of K. Bremer (1994) and

   is narrower than that of N. T. Norlindh (1977[1978]). Arctotideae have been thought to be
   closely allied to members of Cynareae, chiefly on similarities in styles of some taxa and
   prickly, thistly habits in some taxa; such a relationship has been rejected by recent workers.
   J. L. Panero and V. A. Funk (2002) associated Arctotideae with their subfamily Cichorioideae,
   along with tribes Vernonieae, Liabeae, Cichorieae, and Gundelieae.
apex shaperounded + and acute +
appendage shapeovate + and lanceolate +
array architecturecorymbiform +, racemiform + and umbelliform +
base shapeobtuse +, acute +, sagittate + and tailed +
body architecturewinged +
body architecture or shaperibbed +
body external texturesericeous +, tomentulose +, woolly + and glabrous +
branch arrangement or shapelinear +
branch countlacking +
branch habitstigmatic +
calyculus count0 +
corolla architectureactinomorphic +
corolla colorationwhite +, yellow +, orange +, blue +, red +, purple + and brown +
corolla shape3-or-4-toothed +
cypsela architecturemonomorphic +
cypsela shapeellipsoid +, obovoid +, ovoid +, terete +, angled +, flattened + and beaked +
floret architecturepistillate +, styliferous +, neuter + and staminate +
floret reproductionfertile +, sterile + and bisexual +
head architecture or arrangementradiate +
head architecture or shapediscoid +
head arrangementsingly + and aggregated +
head reproductionheterogamous + and homogamous +
leaf architecturepetiolate + and sessile +
leaf arrangementalternate +
leaf positionbasal + and cauline +
lobe count5 +
lobe shapetriangular +, lanceolate + and deltate +
margin architectureprickly +
margin architecture or shapeprickly-ciliate +
margin external texturescarious +
margin positioninner +
margin shapelobed +, dissected +, dentate + and entire +
margin shape or vernationrevolute +
pappus count0 +
pappus durationpersistent +
pappus shapecoroniform +
phyllary durationpersistent +
phyllary external texture or internal textureherbaceous +
phyllary fusiondistinct + and connate +
phyllary internal texturefleshy +
phyllary sizeunequal +
receptacle architectureepaleate + and paleate +
receptacle relieffoveolate +
receptacle shapeflat + and conic +
sap colorationmilky +
style external textureglabrous + and hispidulous +
style shapedilated + and cylindric +
tip shapeparted +
tooth arrangementopposite +
tooth count2 +
whole organism life styleannual + and perennial +