Agoseris monticola occurs mainly in the Sierra Nevada and sporadically eastward in the Great Basin (Jarbridge and Ruby Mountains) and northward to the Cascade Range and Blue Mountains of Oregon. It appears to be allied with A. glauca and has been treated as a variety of the latter. Ecologically, it approaches A. glauca var. dasycephala; the two are morphologically and geographically separate from each other. Intermediates between A. monticola and A. aurantiaca, A. glauca, and A. parviflora are known.