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ECHINOPS Linnaeus Sp. Pl.. 2: 814. 1753.

Globe thistle [Greek echinos , hedgehog, spiny, and ops , face, appearance, alluding to spiny heads]

David J. Keil,

Perennials, 100–200 cm, herbage usually ± tomentose, spiny. Stems usually erect, simple or branched. Leaves basal and cauline; sessile or petiolate; blade margins dentate to pinnately 1–3-pinnately lobed or divided, lobes and teeth spiny, faces ± tomentose, sometimes glandular. Heads discoid, many, each with 1 floret, sessile, in pedunculate, spheric secondary heads. Secondary involucres of reflexed, laciniate-pinnatifid bracts. Primary involucres ellipsoid, subtended by bristles. Phyllaries many in several series, unequal, lanceolate (outer) to linear (inner), entire, apices sometimes expanded and fringed, not spine-tipped. Receptacles turbinate, bearing elongate subulate scales. Florets 1 per primary head; corollas white to greenish, blue-gray, blue, or purple, tubes elongate, throats very short, lobes linear; anther bases sharply tailed, apical appendages narrowly triangular, acute; style branches: fused portions with minutely hairy rings, distinct portions divergent, linear-oblong. Cypselae ± cylindric, 4-angled, apices ± truncate, without crowns, densely villous with long, stiff, appressed or ascending, multicellular hairs, attachment scars basal; pappi of many, short, ± connate [or distinct] scales. x = 13, 14, 15, 16.

Species ca. 120 (3 in the flora):Eurasia; Africa.;

1. Lobes of leaf blades linear or narrowly oblong 3. Echinops ritro
1. Lobes of leaf blades lanceolate to triangular. (2.)
2. Adaxial leaf faces glandular 1. Echinops sphaerocephalus
2. Adaxial leaf faces glabrous or sparsely strigose 2. Echinops exaltatus