Difference between revisions of "Cirsium scariosum"

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{{Plant2000
 
{{Plant2000
|apex position=inner
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|appendage external_texture=scarious
|apex shape=narrowed,scabro-denticulate,with,expanded,,,erose-dentate,tips,spineless,tipped
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|appendage position=inner
|array architecture=spiciform,racemiform,subcapitate
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|appendage shape=acuminate,entire,erose-toothed
|blade arrangement_or_shape=linear,to_elliptic
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|appendage size=expanded
|blade shape=plane,undulate,unlobed,pinnatifid
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|blade shape=linear,oblong,oblanceolate,elliptic,lobed,unlobed
|branch arrangement=crowded
+
 
|chromosome count=34,36
 
|chromosome count=34,36
|collar coloration=colored
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|corolla coloration=white,purple
|corolla coloration=white,lavender,purple
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|head architecture=sessile,short-pedunculate
|cypsela coloration=light,brown
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|head arrangement_or_habit=clustered
|face architecture=winged-petiolate,distal
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|leaf arrangement=crowded
|face architecture_or_shape=bractlike
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|phyllary position=outer
|face count=present,many
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|phyllary shape=mid,ovate
|face development=developed
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|spine coloration=pink,or,purplish
|face duration=persistent
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|spine count=numerous
|face external_texture=glabrous,tomentose,villous,glabrate,trichomes,arachnoid,tomentose,glabrescent
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|spine fragility=weak
|face orientation=appressed
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|spine position=distal
|face other=similar,proximal
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|spine size=larger,1
|face position=adaxial,basal,cauline,distal,outer,mid
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|spine width=narrow,thin
|face size=reduced,reduced
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|stem architecture=simple,leafy
|face width=narrower
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|stem external_texture=glabrous,villous,tomentose
|form architecture=caulescent
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|trichome architecture=septate
|head arrangement=singly,crowded
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|whole_organism architecture=caulescent,acaulescent
|head orientation=erect
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|whole_organism life_style=plant
|involucre external_texture=arachnoid,glabrate
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|involucre shape=ovoid,hemispheric
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|lobe arrangement=spaced
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|lobe orientation=spreading
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|lobe shape=linear-lanceolate,triangular,spinose-dentate,lobed
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|margin shape=entire,scarious-fringed
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|mound position=low
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|mound shape=rounded
+
|pappus coloration=white,tan
+
|peduncle architecture=leafy-bracted
+
|phyllary arrangement=imbricate
+
|phyllary shape=ovate,lanceolate,linear,linear-lanceolate
+
|spine fragility=to_stout
+
|spine orientation=erect,spreading
+
|spine shape=flattened
+
|spine size=slender
+
|stem architecture=simple
+
|stem count=absent
+
|stem external_texture=glabrous,gray-tomentose,villous
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|stem internal_texture=fleshy
+
|stem orientation=erect
+
|stem width=thickened
+
|throat size=larger
+
|tip shape=erose-dentate
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|tip size=expanded
+
|trichome architecture=septate,septate
+
|whole_organism architecture=acaulescent,caulescent,caulescent,taprooted,acaulescent,short-caulescent
+
|whole_organism height_or_length=short
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|whole_organism life_style=biennial,perennial,plant
+
 
|whole_organism orientation=erect
 
|whole_organism orientation=erect
|Flowering time=summer,jun,jul,aug
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|Flowering time=summer,jun,jul,aug,sep,fall
 
}}
 
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Cirsium scariosum is a widely distributed complex of intergrading races distributed from southwestern Canada to northwestern Mexico. These plants range from acaulescent rosettes with a tight cluster of sessile heads to tall, erect, unbranched plants, or moundlike, more or less openly branched herbs. Acaulescent and caulescent plants sometimes occur in the same population.
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The presence of Cirsium scariosum on the islands of the Mingan Archipelago in Quebec, some 3200 km east of the Rocky Mountains populations, has led to alternative hypotheses regarding the disjunction. Frère Marie-Victorin (1925) hypothesized that the disjunct distribution of C. minganense from what he called C. foliosum (Hooker) Candolle was a result of migration during deglaciation (18,000 to ca. 8000 BP) from a glacial refugium in western North America to eastern Canada in the barren habitats along the receding ice front. Later (1938) he presented a second hypothesis that Pleistocene glacial events had divided a preglacial range into vicariant populations that survived in separate refugia in western and eastern regions. R. J. Moore and C. Frankton (1967) argued that the disjunction is modern, resulting from a chance introduction of C. scariosum from western North America to Quebec in the early twentieth century. They reached this conclusion because early collectors that had visited the Mingan Archipelago had failed to collect this conspicuous thistle.

Revision as of 21:15, 14 November 2013


The presence of Cirsium scariosum on the islands of the Mingan Archipelago in Quebec, some 3200 km east of the Rocky Mountains populations, has led to alternative hypotheses regarding the disjunction. Frère Marie-Victorin (1925) hypothesized that the disjunct distribution of C. minganense from what he called C. foliosum (Hooker) Candolle was a result of migration during deglaciation (18,000 to ca. 8000 BP) from a glacial refugium in western North America to eastern Canada in the barren habitats along the receding ice front. Later (1938) he presented a second hypothesis that Pleistocene glacial events had divided a preglacial range into vicariant populations that survived in separate refugia in western and eastern regions. R. J. Moore and C. Frankton (1967) argued that the disjunction is modern, resulting from a chance introduction of C. scariosum from western North America to Quebec in the early twentieth century. They reached this conclusion because early collectors that had visited the Mingan Archipelago had failed to collect this conspicuous thistle.