Difference between revisions of "Cirsium scariosum"

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{{Plant3
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{{Plant2000
|Stem orientation=erect
+
|apex position=inner
|Stem external texture=glabrous,gray-tomentose,villous
+
|apex shape=narrowed;scabro-denticulate;with expanded , erose-dentate tips;spineless;tipped
|Corolla coloration=white,lavender,purple
+
|array architecture=spiciform;racemiform;subcapitate
|Flowering time=
+
|blade arrangement or shape=linear;to_elliptic
 +
|blade shape=plane;undulate;unlobed;pinnatifid
 +
|branch arrangement=crowded
 +
|chromosome count=34;36
 +
|collar coloration=colored
 +
|corolla coloration=white;lavender;purple
 +
|cypsela coloration=light;brown
 +
|face architecture=winged-petiolate;distal
 +
|face architecture or shape=bractlike
 +
|face count=present;many
 +
|face development=developed
 +
|face duration=persistent
 +
|face external texture=glabrous;tomentose;villous;glabrate;trichomes;arachnoid tomentose;glabrescent
 +
|face orientation=appressed
 +
|face other=similar;proximal
 +
|face position=adaxial;basal;cauline;distal;outer;mid
 +
|face size=reduced;reduced
 +
|face width=narrower
 +
|form architecture=caulescent
 +
|head arrangement=singly;crowded
 +
|head orientation=erect
 +
|involucre external texture=arachnoid;glabrate
 +
|involucre shape=ovoid;hemispheric
 +
|lobe arrangement=spaced
 +
|lobe orientation=spreading
 +
|lobe shape=linear-lanceolate;triangular;spinose-dentate;lobed
 +
|margin shape=entire;scarious-fringed
 +
|mound position=low
 +
|mound shape=rounded
 +
|pappus coloration=white;tan
 +
|peduncle architecture=leafy-bracted
 +
|phyllary arrangement=imbricate
 +
|phyllary shape=ovate;lanceolate;linear;linear-lanceolate
 +
|spine fragility=to_stout
 +
|spine orientation=erect;spreading
 +
|spine shape=flattened
 +
|spine size=slender
 +
|stem architecture=simple
 +
|stem count=absent
 +
|stem external texture=glabrous;gray-tomentose;villous
 +
|stem internal texture=fleshy
 +
|stem orientation=erect
 +
|stem width=thickened
 +
|throat size=larger
 +
|tip shape=erose-dentate
 +
|tip size=expanded
 +
|trichome architecture=septate;septate
 +
|whole organism architecture=acaulescent;caulescent;caulescent;taprooted;acaulescent;short-caulescent
 +
|whole organism height or length=short
 +
|whole organism life style=biennial;perennial;plant
 +
|whole organism orientation=erect
 
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Cirsium scariosum is a widely distributed complex of intergrading races distributed from southwestern Canada to northwestern Mexico. These plants range from acaulescent rosettes with a tight cluster of sessile heads to tall, erect, unbranched plants, or moundlike, more or less openly branched herbs. Acaulescent and caulescent plants sometimes occur in the same population.
 
Cirsium scariosum is a widely distributed complex of intergrading races distributed from southwestern Canada to northwestern Mexico. These plants range from acaulescent rosettes with a tight cluster of sessile heads to tall, erect, unbranched plants, or moundlike, more or less openly branched herbs. Acaulescent and caulescent plants sometimes occur in the same population.
Members of this complex have been variously treated in the past. F. Petrak (1917) recognized ten species plus several subspecies for the taxa I am treating here as C. scariosum (in the broad sense). In floras, the names C. drummondii and C. foliosum have been widely misapplied to these plants (R. J. Moore and C. Frankton 1964). The latter two species, while clearly related to C. scariosum, have a range restricted mostly to Canada. Moore and Frankton (1967) attempted to bring order to the complex and recognized four species for plants that I include here in C. scariosum: C. acaulescens, C. congdonii, C. coloradense, and C. scariosum in the restricted sense. Moore and Frankton substituted the prior name C. tioganum for C. acaulescens. Unfortunately they did not extend their study widely enough and did not include some members of the complex in their investigations. S. L. Welsh (1982) proposed C. scariosum var. thorneae from Utah and lumped the various species recognized by Moore and Frankton within a highly polymorphic var. scariosum. After consulting with A. Cronquist and studying his manuscript treatment of Cirsium for the Intermountain Flora, D. J. Keil and C. E. Turner (1993) also accepted a broadly construed C. scariosum. Cronquist (1994) treated C. scariosum as an extremely variable species that included the four species recognized by Moore and Frankton plus the variety proposed by Welsh. Cronquist chose to not recognize infraspecific taxa.
 
In the present treatment I have examined these plants from a biogeographic perspective with the goal of discerning regional patterns of variation. The large number of specimens available has allowed me to examine distributional patterns in relation to the topography and biogeographic history of the regions where this species occurs. My field studies also have provided me with observations that help to explain some of the anomalous specimens represented in herbaria. Although the variation within and between populations is sometimes amazing, more-or-less differentiated geographic races can be discerned. Because of the extraordinary and overlapping patterns of variation across the range of Cirsium scariosum, the following key to varieties should be regarded as at best an approximation.
 

Latest revision as of 22:56, 18 February 2014


Cirsium scariosum is a widely distributed complex of intergrading races distributed from southwestern Canada to northwestern Mexico. These plants range from acaulescent rosettes with a tight cluster of sessile heads to tall, erect, unbranched plants, or moundlike, more or less openly branched herbs. Acaulescent and caulescent plants sometimes occur in the same population.

Facts about "Cirsium scariosum"
apex positioninner +
apex shapenarrowed +, scabro-denticulate +, with expanded , erose-dentate tips +, spineless + and tipped +
array architecturespiciform +, racemiform + and subcapitate +
blade arrangement or shapelinear + and to elliptic +
blade shapeplane +, undulate +, unlobed + and pinnatifid +
branch arrangementcrowded +
chromosome count34 + and 36 +
collar colorationcolored +
corolla colorationwhite +, lavender + and purple +
cypsela colorationlight + and brown +
face architecturewinged-petiolate + and distal +
face architecture or shapebractlike +
face countpresent + and many +
face developmentdeveloped +
face durationpersistent +
face external textureglabrous +, tomentose +, villous +, glabrate +, trichomes +, arachnoid tomentose + and glabrescent +
face orientationappressed +
face othersimilar + and proximal +
face positionadaxial +, basal +, cauline +, distal +, outer + and mid +
face sizereduced +
face widthnarrower +
form architecturecaulescent +
head arrangementsingly + and crowded +
head orientationerect +
involucre external texturearachnoid + and glabrate +
involucre shapeovoid + and hemispheric +
lobe arrangementspaced +
lobe orientationspreading +
lobe shapelinear-lanceolate +, triangular +, spinose-dentate + and lobed +
margin shapeentire + and scarious-fringed +
mound positionlow +
mound shaperounded +
pappus colorationwhite + and tan +
peduncle architectureleafy-bracted +
phyllary arrangementimbricate +
phyllary shapeovate +, lanceolate +, linear + and linear-lanceolate +
spine fragilityto stout +
spine orientationerect + and spreading +
spine shapeflattened +
spine sizeslender +
stem architecturesimple +
stem countabsent +
stem external textureglabrous +, gray-tomentose + and villous +
stem internal texturefleshy +
stem orientationerect +
stem widththickened +
throat sizelarger +
tip shapeerose-dentate +
tip sizeexpanded +
trichome architectureseptate +
whole organism architectureacaulescent +, caulescent +, taprooted + and short-caulescent +
whole organism height or lengthshort +
whole organism life stylebiennial +, perennial + and plant +
whole organism orientationerect +